Ransomware attackers are shifting away from “big game” targets and towards easier, less defended organisations, a new report from Trend Micro has found.
It observed a 47% increase in the number of new victims of this vector from the second half of 2022, many of which were small organisations with less mature cyber postures.
In H1 2023, the majority (57%) of victims of the LockBit gang, responsible for recent high-profile attacks on the Royal Mail and Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC), were organisations that had up to 200 employees, which the report defined as small businesses.
Small businesses also made up nearly half (45%) of victims of BlackCat in this period.
However, small businesses made up a much smaller proportion of Clop victims, at 27%, with large enterprises accounting for half.
LockBit has been the top ransomware family since 2022, accounting for 26.09% of victim organisations, according to the report. This was followed by BlackCat (10.59%) and Clop (10.09%). LockBit was also responsible for one in every six attacks targeting US government offices in 2022.
Globally, the number of victim organisations surged by 45.27% in H1 2023 compared to H2 2022, reaching 2001.
US-based organisations made up nearly half of all ransomware victims (949) in H1 2023, representing a 69.94% rise compared to H2 2022.
Changing Ransomware Landscape
Speaking during Trend Micro’s ‘Risk to Resilience World Tour Breakfast’ media event on Thursday September 21, David Sancho, a senior threat researcher at Trend Micro explained that there are a lot more smaller ransomware groups now in operation. “Whereas there used to be three to five big ones and a tail, there are now three big ones and a very long tail,” he noted.
One factor for the rise in smaller ransomware groups is the leaking of source codes used by LockBit and Conti in recent years, which has enabled other actors to recompile and create new ransomware strains, added Sancho.
He also noted that many ransomware groups are not even encrypting files anymore, and instead simply threatening to expose the information and publicise the incident. “There’s a tendency for new groups not to do ransomware anymore, they just hack and then extort,” explained Sancho.
The Trend Micro report highlighted a 11.3% increase in the number of new ransomware-as-a-service (RaaS) groups in H1 2023 compared to H2 2022, reaching 69.
The Trend Micro breakfast event emphasised the need to shift from cybersecurity to cyber-resilience in the face of an attack surface that has “exploded beyond belief,” according to Bharat Mistry, technical director, UK and Ireland at Trend Micro.
This requires an assumption from organisations that they will be hit, and therefore a prioritisation on incident response and recovery. This in turn necessitates cyber being seen as a business risk rather than solely the domain of IT, added Mistry.
Sancho observed a shift in the cyber-criminal mindset, which makes attacks like ransomware much harder to stop. They increasingly utilise a range of methods to infiltrate networks, including in “unexpected ways,” rather than relying on traditional social engineering attacks.
“Ransomware has become a hacking operation with a ransomware payload instead of just a ransomware attack,” he said.
How to Mitigate Ransomware Attacks
In the report, Trend Micro set out five recommendations to enable organisations to successfully counter ransomware attacks:
- Enable multifactor authentication (MFA). With credential theft remaining the primary means of infiltrating organizations’ employees and systems, adding an extra layer of protection is essential, especially for particularly sensitive data.
- Back up your data. Trend Micro advises businesses to create at least three backup copies in two different file formats, with one of those copies stored offsite. This will limit the impact of systems being locked down by ransomware attackers.
- Keep systems up to date. Organisations must ensure all their applications, operating systems, and other software are updated as soon as vendors and developers release patches to reduce the likelihood of exploitation.
- Verify emails before opening them. Phishing emails, which entice employees to download malicious attachments or click on malicious links, remain a common means to launch ransomware attacks, Therefore, organisations should ensure they have the strongest possible email protections in place, and train employees on how to detect such emails.
- Follow established security frameworks. Trend Micro urged organisations to develop their cybersecurity strategies based around well-regarded security frameworks created by government agencies like the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and UK National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC).